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Microbiology Mnemonics

Written By Dr Medicos on Monday, 8 August 2011 | 13:38


  • Clostridium difficile: disease caused 


"Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there.

Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air).

  • E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors

DUNG:

Diarrhea
UTI
Neonatal meningitis
Gram negative sepsis

_ Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.


  • E. coli: major subtypes

"HIT by E. coli outbreak":

EnteroHemorrhagic:
 HUS from Hamburgers

EnteroInvasive:
 Immune-mediated Inflammation

EnteroToxigenic:
 Traveller's diarrhea


  • Entameoba histolytica: disease caused


EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery.

Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells.


  • Food poisoning: bugs inducing

"Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":

E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]


  • Hepatitis: oral-fecal transmitted types

"A$$ Eaters":

_ Types A and E by oral-fecal route.


  • Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion [ID 2674]

"ATE eggs":

Ascaris Lumbricoides
Trichuris trichuira
Enterobius vermicularis

spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)


  • Vibrio: motility [ID 839]

"Vibrio Vibrates":

Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.

  • Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis [ID 1952]

"With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful":

Wrong diagnosis
Noninfectious endocarditis
Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)
obligate Intracellular organisms
Slow growing fastidious organisms
Fungal infection
Antibiotic used previously
Subacute right-sided endocarditis
Mural endocarditis


  • Endocarditis: indications for surgery

PUS RIVER:

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)
Uncontrolled infection
Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities
Resection of mycotic aneurysm
Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)
Valvular damage (significant)
Embolization (repeated systemic)
Refractory congestive heart failure


  • Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it


"High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis":

Hematuria
Thrombocytopenia
Leukocytosis, -penia
Red blood cell casta
Proteinuria
Anemia
Elevated ESR


  • Psedomonas aeruginosa: features

AERUGINOSA:

Aerobic
Exotoxin A
Rod/ Resistance
UTIs, burns, injuries
Green-blue dressings
Iron-containing lesions
Negative gram
Odor of grapes
Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt)
Adherin pili


  • Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation

"Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":

Sore throat: 1 week ago
Face bloat: facial edema
Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine

_ Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke".


  • Kidney transplant virus

"Borrowed Kidney":

BK virus is associated with kidney transplants.


  • Proteus: disease caused

Firstly, "PROTeus hates PROTons":

So what does it do to fight the protons? It has a urease that raises the pH.
Urea is in urine, so Proteus causes UTIs.


  • Pseudomonas details

_ See diagram of patient.

Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.
Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.
IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a nonlactose fermenter.
Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly caused pneumonia.
IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.
The foley: UTI.
Burn on his foot: can infect burns.


  • UTI-causing microorganisms Hi Yield [ID 1956]

KEEPS:

Klebsiella
Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae
E. coli
Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens


  • AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing Hi Yield [ID 2261]

"The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse":

Toxoplasma gondii
M. avium intracellulare
Pneumocystis carinii
Candida albicans
Cryptococcus neoformans
Tuberculosis
CMV
Cryptosporidium parvum


  • Capsulated microbes

"Some Nasty Killers Have Some Capsule Protection":

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Neisseria meningitidis
Klebsiella pnemoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Salmonella typhi
Cryptococcus neoformans
Pseudomanas aerigenosa


  • Endotoxin features

ENDOTOXIN:

Endothelial cells/ Edema
Negative (gram- bacteria)
DIC/ Death
Outer membrane
TNF
O-antigen
X-tremely heat stable
IL-1
Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis


  • HIV infection: high-risk groups

HIV:

Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs
IV drug abusers


  • IgA protease-producing bacteria

"Nice Strip of Ham":

Neisseria
Streptococcus pneumonia
Haemophilus influenza


  • Vaccines: types

STARK:

Subunit
Toxoid
Attenuated [live]
Recombinant
Killed [inactivated]


  • Tetanus: treatment for infection

SAD RAT:

Sedation
Antitoxin
Debridement
Relaxant
Antibiotic
Tracheostomy


  • Meningitis: risk factors


"Can Induce Severe Attacks Of Head PAINS":

Cancer
Immunocompromised state
Sinusitis
Age extremes
Otitis
Head trauma
Parameningeal infection
Alcoholism
Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory)
Neurosurgical procedures
Splenectomy


  • Toxoplasma gondii: clinical features

Cat reservoir: a cat.
Bug name is Gondii: cat has a Gandi head.
Cat fecal origin: cat is in the litter box.
Causes brain infection, diagnosed by CAT scan: a "CAT" scan of Gandi's brain.
Toxic to eyes: Gandi has cat eyes.
Lymph nodes enlarged: large nodes around neck.
Affects fetus: small kitten in womb.
AIDS patient commonly: cat is very skinny, like an AIDS patient.

_ See diagram.


  • Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations

"My Cat Eats Mice":

Mononucleosis-like illness
Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection
Encephalitis
Myocarditis


  • Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused

"I went on a TRYP to AFRICA":

TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness.


  • Capsulated bacteria

Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing":

Strep pneumonia
Bacteroides
H. influenza
Anthrax (B. anthracis)
E. coli
Pasteurella
Salmonella
Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis)
Yersinia pestis
Pseudomonas
Francisella
Brucella
Klebsiella


  • Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location

Elementary: Extracellular
Initial: Intracellular


  • Common cold: viral causes

"Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is PRIMArily caused by":

Paramyxoviruses
Rhinoviruses
Influenza viruses
Myxoviruses
Adenoviruses


  • DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumb

DNA:

Double-stranded
Nuclear replication
'Anhedral symmetry

_ Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).


  • Gram positive stain

Gram Positives

Stain Purple (violet-blue)
because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer


  • Gram staining: mechanism 

"Murein gets the red out" [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]:

Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple during Gram staining. The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red.
Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).


  • Gram+: bacterial cell wall

_ Gram+ has:

+hick pepidoglycan layer.
+eichoic acid in wall.


  • Hemophilius: culture requirements

Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":
_ Needs Heme with Factors Five and Ten.


  • Listeria: motility

Istanbul sounds like Listambul = list + tumble.
Listeria has tumbling motility.


  • Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis


Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.

MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.
_ Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.


  • Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowing


ABC:

Actinomyces
Bacteroides
Clostridium


  • Picornavirus: features


PICORNAvirus:

ICOsahedral
RNA virus


  • RNA enveloped viruses


FORT ABC, Puerto Rico:

Flavivirus/ Filo
Orthomyxo
Retro
Toga
Arena
Bunya
Corona
Paramyxo
Rhabdo

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