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Biochemistry Mnemonics

Written By Dr Medicos on Monday, 8 August 2011 | 15:17

Essential Amino Acids
PriVaTe TIM HALL
Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys

Urea Cycle
Ordinarily, Careless Crappers, Are Also Frivolous About Urination.
Ornithine, Carbamoyl, Citrulline, Arginosuccinate, Aspartate, Fumarate, Arginine, Urea.

Cell division
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
"People Meet And Talk."

In the PhastedState
Phosphorylate Phosphorylation cascade active when blood glucose low.
DNA expression into mature mRNA
Exons expressed, Introns in the trash.
Pyrimidines are CUT from purines.
Pyrimidines are Cytosine, Uracil, Thiamine and are one ring structures.
Purines are double ring structures.

Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)

BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)
Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA: Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)

Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra
The 3 D's of pellagra: Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia
· Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D's.

Tangier's disease: hallmark
"Tangierene tonsils":
Hallmark is large orange tonsils.
· Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.

Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity
K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in. Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out

Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect
ABCD:
Anderson's=Branching enzyme.
Cori's=Debranching enzyme.
· Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically.

Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor
When the dentist works on your teeth, you say, "AAArg! (Arginine)" before he administers Nitric Oxide (NO) to take the pain away.
· Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase, Ca++, NADPH.

Pompe's disease: type "Police = Po + lys":
Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).

Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes
· With hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:
RTA type 4
Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
"Stenosis": obstructive uropathy
Early uremia
· With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:
Renal TA type 1 and 2
Diarrhoea
Urine diversion into gut
Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
Ex-hyperventilation

Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency
GALIPUT: Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
· There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate

Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP:
Alcoholism
Folic acid antagonists
Oral contraceptives
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Celiac sprue
Dilatin
Relative folate deficiency
Old
Pregnant

Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties
"mt DNA".
mt stands for: Maternal Transfer Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate)

Vitamins: which are fat soluble
"The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)":
Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.

Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax. With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.

Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI
"Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardon":
Von Gierke's
Pompe's
Cori's
Anderson's
McArdle's
Her's

Sickle cell disease pathophysiology
SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain.

Glucagon function
"Mr. Gluca has Gone to the cAMP to bring out some Glucose":
· Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism.

Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test)
"Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin":
Both start with vowels, so they go together:
Indirect & Unconjugated.

Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right
"CADET, face right!":
CO2
Acid
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Exercise
Temperature

G proteins for respective receptors
"QISS & QIQ" (Kiss and Kick):
· G-proteins and their respective receptors (alphabetical order):
Q: alpha 1 I: alpha 2 S: beta 1 S: beta 2 &
Q: M1 I: M2 Q: M3

Adrenaline mechanism
"ABC of Adrenaline":
Adrenaline--> activates
Beta receptors--> increases
Cyclic AMP

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?":
Citrate Isocitrate alpha Ketogluterate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Malate Oxaloacetate

Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target
"CO blocks CO":
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)

Metabolism sites
"Use both arms to HUG":
Heme synthesis Urea cycle Gluconeogenesis · These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria.

Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved
HIKIN': There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell. From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell. Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was "in" was Kris Kross, and a band that was "out" was "Sha Na Na Na": So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out. · Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as "in".

DNA bond strength (nucleotides)
"Crazy Glue":
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds. · This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.

Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names
"Oh My, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet As Sugar!":
Oxalic Malonic Succinic Glutaric Adipic Pimelic Suberic Azelaic Sebacic

Infantile Beriberi symptoms
Restlessness Sleeplessness Breathlessness Soundlessness (aphonia) Eatlessness (anorexia) Great heartedness (dilated heart)
· Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.


AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them
"A Lighter Lease" (A LyTr LeIs):
A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA
Ly=Lysine
Tr=Tryptophan
Le=Leucine
Is=Isoleucine

Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
"Muscles LIVe fast":
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine

Glycolysis steps
"Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies":
Glucose
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Fructose-1,6-diP
Dihydroxyacetone-P
Glyceraldehyde-P
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate · 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
· 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.

Fabry's disease
FABRY'S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Sphingolipidoses

B vitamin names
"The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious":
· In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12)

Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action
Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate Ketoglutarate Succinyl coA Succinate Fumarate Malate

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Aconitate Isocitrate Oxalosuccinate Alpha-ketoglutarate SuccinyL-CoA SuccinaTe Fumarate Malate
· SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe

Type 1 glycogen storage disease
Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke's disease

Essential amino acids
PVT. TIM HALL: Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Leu Lys
· Pvt. is short for Private in the military.
· Arg and His are considered semiessential.
· Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy".

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Can I Ask Sharon Stone For My Orgasm?":
Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Maleate Oxaloacetate

Golgi complex: functions
"Golgi Distributes A SPAM":
Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
Proteoglycan assembly
Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine

Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation
"4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guy":
· Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields:
4 NADH FADH2 3 CO2 1 GTP

Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids
"Truck hit the Ox to Death":
Transamination
Oxidative decarboxylation
Dehydrogenation

Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms
The famous 4 D's:
Diarrhoea Dermatitis Dementia Death (if untreated)

Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors
"Nice GAMs!": Glycine Arginine Methionine
· Gam is slang for a person's leg, especiallay an attractive female's leg: "Nice gams = nice legs!"
· Creatine phosphate is a muscle energy store, and spontaneously converts to creatinine which is excreted in the urine in direct proportion to muscle mass: clinically useful, such as in MS Dx.

Enzymes: classification
"Over The HILL":
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Isomerases
Ligases
Lyases
· Enzymes get reaction over the hill.

Insulin: function
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose.

Collagen concisely covered
COLLAGEN:
C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking)
Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta
Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains (postranslational modification)
Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions
· Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases

Essential amino acids
"PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires":
Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Lue Lys
· Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
· 'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.

Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms
"Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD":
Headache/ Hepatomegaly
Anorexia/ Alopecia
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness

Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins, heme (pyrrole ring)
"Dracula wants to Suck a Co-ed's blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!":
Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole rings, which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme.

Enzymes: competitive inhibitors
"Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity":
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases

Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
"In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate":
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.

Sickle cell anemia: mutation
"HbS isn't Very Good":
At Sixth position of HB beta chain, Valine is present instead of Glutamic acid.

tRNA: molecular shape
Fortunately, tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T.
· See diagram.

Malate-aspartate shuttle
"MAD commute":
Malate in. Alpha-ketoglutarate and D (Aspartate) out.

Vitamins: which are fat soluble
KADE: Vitamin K Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E

Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient
PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase


In the Phasted State Phosphorylate
Phosphorylation cascade active when blood glucose low.

Exons expressed, Introns in the trash--DNA expression into mature mRNA

Pyrimidines are CUT from purines.
Pyrimidines are Cytosine, Uracil, Thiamine and are one ring structures.
Purines are double ring structures.


Amino Acids:The ten essential amino acids:
"These Ten Valuable Amino Acids Have Long Preserved Life In
Man."
(Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine, Arginine, Histidine, Lysine,
Phenylalanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine)

INsulin gets sugar INto cells- (Excess sugar is removed via urine.The Romans noticed bees attracted to the urine of diabetics and coined the term "diabetes" to describe the overflow of sugar.)


GOAT FLAP- Eight hormones: Growth hormone, Oxytocin, Adenocorticotropin, Thyroid stimulating hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Leutinizing hormone (interstitial cell stimulating hormone in males), Anti-diruetic(Vasopressin), and Prolactin
(shhhh.... also Melatonin!)

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